Bharatanatyam, a pre-eminent Indian classical dance kind presumably the oldest classical dance heritage of India is thought to be mom of many different Indian classical dance types. Conventionally a solo dance carried out solely by girls, it initiated within the Hindu temples of Tamil Nadu and ultimately flourished in South India.
Theoretical base of this way traces again to ‘Natya Shastra’, the traditional Sanskrit Hindu textual content on the performing arts. A type of illustrative anecdote of Hindu non secular themes and religious concepts emoted by dancer with wonderful footwork and spectacular gestures its efficiency repertoire contains nrita, nritya and natya.
Accompanists embrace a singer, music and notably the guru who directs and conducts the efficiency. It additionally continues to encourage a number of artwork types together with work and sculptures ranging from the spectacular sixth to ninth century CE temple sculptures.
The repertoire of this efficiency artwork are categorized into three brackets particularly ‘Nritta’, ‘Nritya’ and ‘Natya’ talked about in ‘Natya Shastra’ and adopted by all main Indian classical dance types. ‘Nritta’ is a technical efficiency the place the dancer presents pure Bharata Natyam actions emphasising on velocity, kind, sample, vary and rhythmic features with none type of enactment or interpretive side.
In ‘Nritya’ the dancer communicates a narrative, religious themes, message or emotions by expressive gestures and slower physique actions harmonised with musical notes. ‘Natyam’ is normally carried out by a gaggle or in some circumstances by a solo dancer who maintains sure physique actions for sure characters of the play which is communicated by dance-acting. The dance kind usually includes of sure sections carried out in sequence particularly Alarippu, Jatiswaram, Shabdam, Varnam, Padam and Thillana.
The type of dressing of a Bharatanatyam dancer is kind of much like that of a Tamil Hindu bride. She wears a stunning tailored sari that consists of a fabric specifically stitched in pleats that falls within the entrance from the waist and when the dancer performs spectacular footwork that embrace stretching or bending her knees, the material widens up like a hand fan.
The sari worn in a particular method is effectively complimented with conventional jewelry that embrace those that adorn her head, nostril, ear and neck and vivid face make-up specifically highlighting her eyes in order that viewers can view her expressions correctly. Her hair neatly plaited in standard method is commonly beautified with flowers. A jewelry belt adorns her waist whereas musical anklets referred to as ghunghru product of leather-based straps with small metallic bells connected to it are wrapped in her ankles. Her ft and fingers are sometimes brightened with henna color in order to focus on gestures of her arms.
Devices & Music
The Bharatnatyam dancer is accompanied by a nattuvanar (or taladhari) that could be a vocalist who typically conducts the entire efficiency, an element typically executed by the guru. The individual may also play the cymbals or another instrument.
The music related to Bharatanatyam is in South India’s Carnatic type and devices performed comprise of cymbals, the flute, an extended pipe horn referred to as nagaswaram, a drum referred to as mridangam and veena. The verses recited throughout efficiency are in Sanskrit, Tamil, Kannada and Telugu.
The 4 Nattuvanars particularly Ponaiyah, Vadivelu, Sivanandam and Chinnaiya who’re famend as Tanjaore Bandhu and who thrived within the Durbar of Maratha ruler, Sarfoji-II from 1798 to 1832 formed up the fashionable day Bharatanatyam. Meenakshi Sundaram Pillai, a dance guru from the village of Pandanallur was a famous exponent of Bharatanatyam who’s predominantly identified for his type referred because the Pandanallur college of Bharatanatyam.
One in all his college students Rukmini Devi championed and carried out the Pandanallur (Kalakshetra) type and likewise remained one of many main proponents of the classical dance revival motion. Balasarswati who was thought to be little one prodigy by Vidhwans and Pandits additionally joined arms in reviving the dance kind.
She was a virtuoso of the Thanjavur type of Bharatanatyam. Different imminent Bharatanatyam artists embrace Mrinalini Sarabhai, her daughter Mallika Sarabhai, Padma Subramanyam, Alarmel Valli, Yamini Krishnamurthy and Anita Ratnam amongst others.