DoonitedHistory Of GarhwalNews
Breaking News

History Of Garhwal

History Of Garhwal
Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins.

Garhwal has been held in high esteem by the Hindus. The Vishnu Purana, Mahabharata and Varahasamhita scriptures mention a number of tribes dwelling on the borders of the Bharat of that time and amongst them the Sakas, Nagas, Khasas, Hunas and Kiratas probably lived in the Garhwal- Kumaon region of today.

The Sakas were perhaps the earliest ruling races of the Kumaon hills. They have also been referred to as the Sacae by classical writers of history and as the Indo-Scythians by modern ethnographers. The royal house of, both, the Kumaon and Garhwal hills are probably descendants of the famous Salivahana.

There are many traces of the mysterious race known as the Nagas. They were evidently a race for whom the hooded snake was sacred and later legends have identified the members of the tribe with their emblem. Writing the history of India, Wheeler (as cited by Walton 1910) describes them in the following words, “In Garhwal we have the traces of the Nagas in the names of pattis Nagpur and Urgam and the universal tradition of their residence in the valley of the Alaknanda. At the present day, Sheshnag is honoured at Pandukeshwar, Bhakal Nag at Ratgaon, Sangal Nag at Talor, Banpur Nag at Margaon, Lohandea Nag at Jelam in the Niti valley and Pushkara Nag at Nagnath in Nagpur.”

The name Khasa has a very wide significance. The Khasas were the dominant race in the Garhwal and Kumaon hills till the advent of the Rajputs and Brahmins from the plains. Some authors are of the opinion that the Khasas, like the Nagas, were once a very powerful race and came to settle down in Garhwal from central Asia.

Today’s Khasas profess to be Rajputs, who have fallen from their once honourable position by the necessity of living under conditions where the strict observance of the ceremonial usages of their religion was difficult. They are, perhaps, numerically the most dominant race in the Garhwal hills, though the line of division between them and later immigrants from the plains has now become faint.

In the early ages, Garhwal was ruled by a number of petty princes who at a later date assumed the form of a loose federation or Baoni of about fifty two states. It is not very clear whether these chiefs owned the suzerainty of the more powerful kings of the plains. On the basis of local traditions and ancient inscriptions, it can be assumed that two or three chiefdoms or principalities were more important.

These are, first, Brahmapura described by Huein Tsang, the famous Chinese traveller in 629 A.D. Though the exact borders of this kingdom are not known, it must have been somewhere in central Garhwal, probably Barahat in Tehri; and second, Jyotirdham or Joshimath, which was the capital of another important ancient kingdom that covered parts of present day Garhwal and Kumaon. It was ruled by the Katyuris.

Through the ages, the evolution of human civilization in the Garhwal Himalayan has been parallel to the rest of Indian sub-continent. Katyuri was the first historical dynasty, which rule over unified Uttarakhand and left some important records in the form of inscriptions and temples. In later period after the downfall of Katyuri’s, it is believed that Garhwal region was fragmented in more than sixty-four principalities ruled by the Chieftain, one of the principal Chieftainship was Chandpurgarh, which was ruled by descendent of Kanakpal. In the mid of 15th century A.D. Chandpurgarh emerged as a powerful principality under the rule of Jagatpal (1455 to 1493 A.D.), who was a descendent of Kanakpal. In the fag end of 15th century Ajaypal enthroned the Chandpurgarh and succeeded in unifying and consolidating various principalities on the region with in a Kingdom and his Kingdom came to known as Garhwal. Subsequently, he had transferred his capital from Chandpur to Devalgarh before 1506 and later on to Srinagar during 1506 to 1519 A.D.

King Ajaypal and his successors ruled the Garhwal for nearly three hundred years even during this period they had faced a number of attacks from Kumaon, Mughal, Sikh, Rohilla. An important event in the history of Garhwal was the Gorkha invasion. It was marked by extreme brutality and the word ‘Gorkhyani’ has become synonymous with massacre and marauding armies. After subjugating Doti and Kumaon, Gorkhas attacked Garhwal and reached as far as Langoorgarh despite stiff resistance put up by the Garhwali forces. But in the meantime, news came of a Chinese invasion and the Gorkhas were forced to lift the siege. However, in 1803, they again mounted an invasion. After capturing Kumaon, they attach Garhwal in three columns. Five thousand Garhwali soldiers could not stand the fury of their attack and the King Pradyumna Shah escaped to Dehradun to organize his defense. But his forces were no match to the Gorkha might. Garhwali soldiers suffered heavy casualties and the King himself was killed in the battle of Khudbuda. The Gorkhas became the masters of entire Garhwal in 1804 and ruled the territory for twelve years.

Gorkha ruled in the Garhwal area ended in 1815 when the British drove the Gorkhas to the West of Kali river, despite stiff resistance offered by them. After defeat of Gorkha army, the Britishers on 21 April 1815, decided to establish their rule over the eastern, half of the Garhwal region, which lies east of Alaknanda & Mandakini river, later on, known as ‘British Garhwal’ and Dun of Dehradun. The remaining part of the Garhwal in the west was restored to King Sudershan Shah who established his capital at Tehri. Initially the administration was entrusted to the commissioner of the Kumaon and Garhwal with his headquarters at Nainital, but later Garhwal was separated and formed into a separate district in 1840 A.D. under an assistant commissioner with his headquarter at Pauri.

At the time of independence, Garhwal, Almora and Nainital districts were administered through commissioner of Kumaon division. In early 1960, Chamoli district was curve out of Garhwal district. In 1969 Garhwal division was formed with its headquarter at Pauri. After curving out of seventy-two villages of Khirsu block of district Pauri Garwhal in 1998 for creation of new district of Rudraprayag, the district is reached in its present form.

Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.

Post source : Srinagar Heritage Foundation.

Related posts

error: Be Positive Be United
%d bloggers like this: